Tax Reporting & Compliance (TR&C) FAQs
- General Information
- Tax Documents
- Information for Employees - General
- Information for Employees - Out of State
- Information for Employees - Non Residents working Outside of US
- Information for Employees - Non Residents Working in the US
- Scholarships or Fellowships
- Sales Tax & Use Tax
- Vendor Payment Reporting & Withholding
1. General Information
- What is UC Davis’s tax status and federal tax identification number?
- UC Davis is a tax exempt 501(c)(3) organization and was formed by Article IX, Section 9 of the Constitution of the State of California.
The federal taxpayer identification numbers (TIN) assigned by the Internal Revenue Service is 94-6036494.
- What is UC Davis’s California tax identification number?
- UC Davis’s state taxpayer ID assigned by the state is 935-0501-4.
- What is UC Davis’s sellers permit number?
- UC Davis’s sellers permit number is SR-Y-JHF-29-047481.
- If I am processing a document that will impact the TR&C accounts, is it helpful if I include the project code associated with my department program/ employee?
- Please do not include project codes when impacting the TR&C accounts.
2. Tax Documents
- Where is my Form W-2?
- UC Path released the 2022 Form W-2. Please login to your UC Path account at https://ucpath.universityofcalifornia.edu to download your Form W-2. All UC Path issued W-2 forms are available.
If you have any questions regarding your Form W-2, please contact UC Path at 855-982-7284 or submit an inquiry in your UC Path account.
- I am a former employee. I can’t login to the UC Path portal to obtain my UC Path Form W-2. What can I do?
- Please contact UC Path at 855-982-7284. They need to have a record of your personal email address. UC Path will need to grant you access to the former employee portal for you to retrieve your tax documents and/or earning statements.
- I need a copy of my 2019 or any Form W-2 prior to UC Path conversion (before October 2019). Where can I request for one?
- Please complete a Form W-2 request. You can submit the completed form to the Central Payroll office via email at email@example.com
- Where is my Form 1042-S?
- The current year Form 1042-S is available through your Glacier account. UC Path released the 2022 Form 1042-S reporting tax treaty on wages on February 10, 2023. The 2022 Form 1042-S reporting fellowship payments was released on February 17, 2023. If you indicated that you did not want electronic access to your 1042-S, then UC Path will mail your 2022 Form 1042-S for tax treaty on wages to the current address they have on file in the UC Path portal. As for your 2022 Form 1042-S for fellowship payments, TR&C will mail to the address on file in your Glacier individual record.
- How can I obtain my Form 1042-S from previous tax year(s)?
- We can retrieve the Form 1042-S issued by UC Davis. This covers all Form 1042-S prior to the UC Path conversion in October 2019 and fellowship payments. Please send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org and indicate the tax year.
With the UC Path conversion, they handle the Form 1042-S for wages/salary/bonus starting October 2019. You will need to contact UC Path at 855-982-7284 or submit an inquiry in your UC Path account to obtain previous Form 1042-S for wages/salary/bonus.
- Why is the option to use Glacier Tax Prep (GTP) greyed out in Glacier?
- GTP is a tax program for individuals that have a nonresident alien status to file their federal tax return. You will not be able to use GTP if your tax residency status is a resident alien for U.S. tax purposes. Please refer to your Tax Summary Report. It will indicate your tax residency status. You will need the access code from SISS office to waive the filing fee in GTP.
- Can I get the access code to GTP?
- SISS office issues the access code. They will send the access code in late February or early March via email with an email address of email@example.com.
- Where is my Form 1098-T? I have questions about my Form 1098-T?
- Please refer to Student Accounting’s webpage regarding Form 1098-T here. If you have any questions regarding your Form 1098-T, then please contact Student Accounting via Contact An Expert. For the “My question is about” field, select “Student Accounting.” For the “My question’s topic is” field, select “1098T Tax Form.”
- How can I obtain my Form 1099-MISC?
- Please send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org and indicate the tax year to request for your Form 1099-MISC.
- I need help with filing my federal and/or state tax returns. Can TR&C help with filing tax returns?
- No. TR&C staff are not certified tax preparer/professional tax accountant. Therefore, TR&C cannot provide formal tax advice. Please see below for resources.
SISS: General Tax Information
Tax Filing Resources
IRS: Choosing a Tax Professional
3. Information for Employees - General
- How can I update my tax withholding?
To update tax withholding, log into UC Path> Income and Taxes.
- Can I get a copy of past W-2 forms?
- Yes. The Form W-2 for wages paid prior to September 2019 you can obtain copies of a past Form W-2 by logging into At Your Service. The Form W-2s issued by UC Path are available through the UC Path portal. To enroll in UC Path Form W-2 online access please navigate to: Income and Taxes > Enroll to receive online W-2.
- I didn’t update my tax withholding in time and more income tax was withheld than I wanted. Can I get a refund of the extra withholding?
- No. Taxes withheld from paychecks are remitted to the tax authority on your behalf at the time of withholding. However, you can adjust future withholding. If you believe over withholding occurred due to UC Path error, please submit a case to the UCPath Center through the self-service UC Path portal. UCPath colleagues will review your record and reply.
- I believe that the tax withholding on my paycheck is not correct. How to I request a review of the withholding?
Please submit a case to the UC Path Center through the self-service UC Path portal. UCPath colleagues will review your record and reply.
- Why are prizes and awards given to employees taxed?
- The IRS has provided very clear guidance that prizes and awards are considered supplemental wages subject to income tax withholding, OASDI, and Medicare. Reference can be found in IRS publication 15, Supplemental Wages. In addition, specific UC and campus guidelines are available here
4. Information for Employees - Out of State
- Is there a specific amount of time the employee needs to be out of CA to no longer be considered a California Resident for wage reporting and withholding?
The State of California FTB Publication 1031 provides specific guidance on when a person is considered a California resident. California residency rests on the underlying theory of the place the taxpayer has the closest connection. If a taxpayer is a resident of California and leaves the state for an employment-related contract the FTB provides a safe-harbor clause requiring the employment contract to require non-California residency for 546 consecutive days. FTB Publication 1031 provides several examples. Employees who believe they are no longer California residents should review the FTB publication for additional information.
- I am not a California resident but I am working in California. Why is the university withholding California income tax?
- The State of California requires us to withhold income tax on all income earned in California. This requirement is independent of where the employee resides. You can adjust your California withholding by logging into UC Path > Income and Taxes > CA State Withholding (DE-4). If you don't find the option under your Income and Taxes selection the out of state withholding forms can be found from Forms Library, > Access Forms > Payroll >Out-of-State Income Tax Withholding Form.
- I am in California because my spouse is on active military orders. I qualify to claim another state of residency because of the Military Spouses Residency Relief Act (MSRRA). What is the university process for claiming MSRRA?
- If you are claiming exempt because you are eligible for the Military Spouses Residency Relief Act (MSRRA), then you may update your out of state withholding by logging into UC Path >Income and Taxes > Out of State Withholding. You will be required to complete the state specific withholding form for the state you claim tax residency.
- I am not a California resident and I am working outside of California. How do I avoid California withholding? Will the university withhold for the state I am working in?
- If you are working out of state, you may update out of state withholding by logging into UC Path >Income and Taxes > Out of State Withholding.
- I am not a California Resident and perform work both within California and out of California. What is the process for correctly reporting and withholding the split locations?
- If you are a Non-California resident, your earnings are subject to reporting and withholding in the state the wages are earned. You are required to submit an Out of State Income Tax Withholding form EACH time your change locations between California and your tax residency state. To do this: Log into UC Path online > Income and Taxes > Out of State Withholding (W-4). UC Path colleagues will review your submission and follow up with you directly to resolve any follow up questions.
- I am a non-California resident and I relocated outside of California but did not update my tax information for several months. What is the process for correcting the tax reporting?
- Please submit an updated Out of State Withholding (W-4) form through UC Path online > Income and Taxes > Out of State Withholding (W-4). Once the process is complete, UC Path Center staff will correct the state gross and withholding records to be reflected in the state where the labor occurred.
- Will the UC Path Center refund the California tax withheld after I relocated?
- UC Path Center staff will process an adjustment to transfer your taxable wages and tax withholdings to the correct state and a refund will be processed if applicable. Refunds can only be processed for the current year.
- I am a US Citizen and I am working abroad. Is my university-pay subject to Federal or State income tax withholding?
- US citizens and resident aliens are federally taxed on their worldwide income and the university is required to withhold Social Security tax as well as federal income tax, in accord with your Form W-4 on file. Please consult the IRS or a tax professional for specific guidance. This is a complex area of tax law.
5. Information for Employees - Non Residents working Outside of US
- I am not a US Citizen and I am working abroad. Is my university-pay subject to Federal or State income tax withholding?
- Nonresidents working outside of the US are not subject to reporting or withholding – Federal or State. You will need to go to UC Path online > Income and Taxes > Out-of-State Income Tax Withholding. You will need to follow the system prompts to complete the process. This will include completion of the Out-of-State Income Tax Withholding AND a Foreign Source Income Statement. UC Path Center staff will review your documentation and reach out directly with any questions.
- I am a nonresident for tax purposes (I have not passed the substantial presence test) who is going to relocate outside the United States while still a nonresident for tax purposes. The income I earn while located outside of the United States should not be reportable or subject to US Federal withholding. How is this accomplished?
- You will accomplish this update by utilizing the UC Path self-service portal. Please go to UC Path online > Income and Taxes > Out-of-State Income Tax Withholding. You will need to follow the system prompts to complete the process. This will include completion of the Out-of-State Income Tax Withholding AND a Foreign Source Income Statement. UC Path Center staff will review your documentation and reach out directly with any questions.
- I am not a US Citizen or Permanent Resident BUT I already passed the Substantial Presence test for the tax year. I have relocated outside the country while I continue to earn wages from UC Davis. Who reviews my situation and determines if I need to remain treated as a resident for tax purposes? What is the process to advise the employee and service channel of the circumstance?
- UCPath Center staff will evaluate your withholding and reporting once the following is completed:
- 1. Update Glacier and resubmit to the UC Davis Tax Reporting and Compliance office.
- 2. Complete the process at the UCPath self-service portal at UCPath online > Income and Taxes > Out-of-State Income Tax Withholding.
- 3. Open a case within the self-service UCPath portal asking UCPath Center staff to review your residency and reporting status for tax purposes.
- If I am nonresident for tax purposes and relocate outside the US, do I need to complete Glacier?
- A: If you are a nonresident working outside of the US, you do not need to complete Glacier. However, you do need to notify UC Path of your work location. This is accomplished by logging onto UCPath online > Income and Taxes > Out-of-State Income Tax Withholding. Follow the system prompts to complete the process. This will include completion of the Out of State Income Tax Withholding AND a Foreign Source Income Statement. UCPath Center staff will review your documentation and reach out directly with any questions.
- I am a nonresident currently in the US and leaving, but will continue to work for UC Davis while I am outside of the US. What do I need to do in Glacier so that I am correctly taxed while out-of-country?
- Prior to leaving the US, please update the "Estimated or Actual Date of Final Departure from the U.S." field on the Time Spent in the US screen in Glacier.
If you had already passed the substantial presence test for the year, you will continue to be taxed as a resident alien for tax purposes until the new calendar year begins.
6. Information for Employees - Non Residents Working in the US
- According to my Glacier individual record, I am a nonresident alien for U.S. tax purposes. I need to complete a Form W-4. Can I get assistance with the Form W-4?
- Unfortunately, TR&C staff are not certified tax preparer/professional tax accountant. Therefore, TR&C cannot provide formal tax advice on the Form W-4. For resource, please see IRS Notice 1392 - Supplemental Form W-4 Instructions for Nonresident Aliens.
- I don't have a SSN/ITIN yet. Can I still receive my paycheck?
- Yes! UC Path should still be able to issue your paychecks.
Even if you haven't complete your Glacier individual record, you will still receive your paychecks. UC Path will assess the maximum tax withholdings on your paychecks until you complete your Glacier individual record, and submit completed Glacier forms and document copies to TR&C.
- I am a visiting international scholar with an available tax treaty. My earnings are subject to a tax treaty. I didn’t complete my tax treaty process prior to my paycheck being issued and taxes were withheld. Can you refund my taxes?
- No, the university cannot refund taxes withheld prior to the completion of your tax treaty paperwork. The tax treaty is only effective for payments after the completed treaty paperwork is submitted to the IRS by the university. You may be entitled to a refund when you file your tax return after the end of the calendar year.
- What is the timeframe to have my completed Glacier Packet with the tax treaty to impact my pay?
To be effective for a paycheck, Glacier packets must be accepted by the UC Davis Tax Reporting and Compliance team no later than 3 days before the Transaction Deadline Date (denoted with the “T” suffix) on the UC Davis Payroll Calendar. This is typically 13 workdays prior to the pay date.
Tax treaties are effective on the date accepted and signed by the UC Davis Tax Reporting and Compliance (TRC) and cannot be retroactively applied.
- I have a completed tax treaty. Why are you withholding California income taxes?
- California does not conform to federal law relating to income protected by US tax treaties. California income is taxable and subject to withholding.
- Why did Safe Harbor just start being deducted from my check? I have been receiving employee pay since January.
- Nonresident Aliens are not subject to FICA. It is likely that your residency status changed from a nonresident to a resident for tax purposes by passing the substantial presence test. All residents for tax purposes are subject to FICA or DCP, depending on their position.
- I have a tax treaty. Why is DCP safe harbor withheld?
- Tax Treaties apply only to income tax. Social Security tax is different and not covered by Tax Treaties. It is very common for a person to have wages exempt from income tax withholding due to a tax treaty and simultaneously be subject to Social Security/Safe Harbor withholding.
- I am trying to update my California tax withholding but UC Path is not allowing me access. How do I update my withholding?
- UC Path colleagues are working to provide access. Until this update is complete, Nonresidents can update California withholding by completing the DE-4 form and submitting a case to UCPath (via case management) with the completed form attached.
- I completed a Glacier individual record. I know there is a tax treaty exemption agreement between my home country and the US. How do I obtain the tax treaty exemption?
- To be eligible for the tax treaty exemption, you must meet all the specific requirements. If you see any hold such as "HOLD 1" on your Glacier individual record, then you are not eligible for a tax treaty exemption at this time. A "HOLD 1" means you don't have a social security number (SSN) or an individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN). For more information about SSN and ITIN, please see Services for International Students and Scholars (SISS) here.
- I extended my Visa. What do I need to do in Glacier?
- After extending your Visa, please update the "Date Permission to stay in the U.S. Expires" field on the Time Spent in the US screen in Glacier. Please use the program end date listed on your updated Form I-20 (F-1 visa) or Form DS 2019 (J-1 visa). Please make sure to submit the updated Glacier forms and documents to TR&C.
- I returned to the United States. What do I need to do in Glacier?
After returning to the United States, your Glacier individual record will need to be reactivated. Notify the campus Glacier Administrator with an email to email@example.com.
If you never had an account, Please submit the Glacier Request form.
- I completed my Glacier individual record. What Glacier forms and documents do I need to submit?
Depending on the payment type(s) you selected in Glacier and your current visa type, the Glacier system will generate the specific forms and request certain document copies. Please make sure to check your Tax Summary Report page (page one of your PDF file from Glacier). The boxes above your signature line will list all the required Glacier forms and document copies you need to submit for review (see red box in the example below).
- I have all my Glacier forms and documents ready for submission, how do I submit it to TR&C?
Please DO NOT email the required Glacier forms and documents to TR&C staff. You may submit them through our Secure File Drop. Once TR&C staff reviews and accepts your submission, you will get an email confirmation from UC Davis ticketing system called Service Now.
- I am married. My spouse and/or dependents are here with me in the US. Why is my martial status for federal tax withholding marked as "single" on my earning statement and I don't have the option to change it in the UC Path portal.
If your tax residency status is a nonresident alien for US tax purposes in the Glacier system, then you can't change your martial status. Per IRS regulations, your marital status must be "single" until after your "Residency Status Change Date" listed on your Tax Summary Report. You will become a residential alien for US tax purposes after this date. Once this date passed, you can submit an updated Form W-4 to UC Path in the portal by submitting an inquiry. This restriction only applies to your federal tax withholding. As for your state tax withholding, you can submit an updated DE 4 or state tax form withholding to UC Path at anytime regardless of your tax residency status.
- I get Glacier email reminders to complete my Glacier individual record. However, I used Glacier Tax Prep or other tax programs to file my tax return already. Can I stop getting these email reminders?
If you don't expect any more payments from UC Davis/UC Path, then please notify firstname.lastname@example.org that you do not currently need a Glacier account. This will allow the glacier email notifications to cease.
Please note that inside of the Glacier system, there are two components: Glacier individual record and Glacier Tax Prep (GTP). TR&C only handles the Glacier individual record portion in Glacier. You are required to complete a Glacier individual record when you have an active employment with UC Davis and/or expect other payments such as fellowship, honorarium, etc. This system helps determine your tax residency status and the tax rate that we apply to your UC Davis payment(s). Action is needed on your part when you get these Glacier email reminders.
Glacier individual record is NOT your tax return that you file with IRS or the state. Therefore, we DO NOT require you to submit your tax returns (Form 1040NR, Form W-2, Form 1042-S, etc) with your GLACIER packet.
7. Scholarships or Fellowships
- I want to award a scholarship to an active student. How do I do this?
The appropriate process is to pay scholarships to active students is through Banner. Please work with Student Accounting. If a scholarship for an active student is submitted through KFS it will be returned to the department and delay the delivery of the funds.
- When does the University report fellowships for scholarships?
- The answer is dependent on the residency of the recipient.
United States citizens or resident aliens – The IRS does not require the university to report scholarship or fellowship grants for United States citizens or resident aliens; however, recipients of non-qualified scholarship and fellowship amounts should be advised that such amounts are taxable and that it may be advisable for the recipients to make estimated tax payments.
Under IRC Section 117, the determination of whether a scholarship or fellowship grant must be reported to the IRS by the recipient is based on whether the grant (or a portion of the grant) is qualified or non-qualified and whether the recipient is a degree or a non-degree candidate.
1. Degree Candidates
> Qualified Amounts: The portion of a qualified scholarship or fellowship grant used for tuition and fees and related course requirement expenses is excludable from the recipient’s gross income if the recipient is a candidate for a degree for the purpose of studying or conducting research at an educational institution.
> Nonqualified amounts: The portion of a scholarship or fellowship grant received for incidental expenses, e.g., room and board, travel, research, benefits, and expenses for equipment and other items not required for either enrollment or attendance in a course of instruction is not excludable from gross income. Therefore, such expenses are taxable.
> Tax Reporting: Although neither the qualified nor the nonqualified portion of such grants is subject to income tax reporting or withholding, any amount used for nonqualified expenses must be reported by the recipient on his or her U.S. and California Income tax return.
2. Non-Degree Candidates and Post-Doctoral Fellows
No amount of a scholarship or fellowship grant received by a non-degree candidate (including a post-doctoral fellow) is considered qualified; therefore, the entire amount of the grant is taxable and must be reported by the recipient on his or her tax return.
Nonresident Aliens: Under IRC Section 1441, the University as the withholding agent is required to report income and withhold Federal income tax from all income payments made to or on behalf of a nonresident alien, unless the payment is excluded under specific exemptions. The most common exemption is a tax treaty. All Nonresident aliens are required to complete Glacier registration which will advise if there is an applicable tax treaty exclusion.
Absent exclusions, non-wage payments made to a nonresident alien that has been determined to be taxable are subject to income tax withholding at a 30 percent rate. However, a special 14 percent rate applies to any taxable scholarship or fellowship grants paid to F or J visa holders.
- I expect to receive fellowship payments. However, I don't have my SSN/ITIN yet. Do I need to apply and obtain my SSN/ITIN before I can get my fellowship payments?
- No. You don't need to have a SSN/ITIN in order to receive your fellowship payments. However, you will need to complete your Glacier individual record, and submit your Glacier forms and document copies to TR&C in order to receive your fellowship payments.
- I am a nonresident student receiving a fellowship while abroad. Do I need to complete Glacier? Or Update SISWEB?
Students abroad do not need to complete Glacier. Please notify email@example.com that you do not currently need a Glacier account. This will allow the glacier email notifications to cease.
Per the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS), under IRC 1441, the University, as the withholding agent, is required to report income and withhold Federal income tax from all US sourced income payments made to, or on behalf of, Nonresident Alien students. The income sourcing laws for scholarships and fellowships are heavily reliant on where the student recipient of the scholarship or fellowship is physically located during the academic term. In order for UC Davis to correctly determine the reporting and withholding associated with your scholarship or fellowship, we are required to collect your physical address during the academic term. If your physical address changes during the academic term you must update your record to reflect the relocation. Failure to accurately complete this field may lead to unnecessary withholding of federal income tax – which can only be returned by the IRS during the 2021 tax filing season.
To report where you are currently residing, please follow these instructions:
1. Login to SISWEB (https://sisweb.ucdavis.edu/)
2. Click on the “Personal Information” Tab
3. Click on “Update Address(es) and Phone(s)”
4. In the drop-down section, choose: “Non-Resident Alien Tax Address” and hit “Submit"
5. Enter your current physical address, including the correct date range
6. Hit "Submit"
7. It is important we have your correct physical address at the time of each payment. If you know you will be moving in the near future, by repeating the above instructions you can enter multiple "Tax Addresses" with different date ranges.
8. Sales Tax & Use Tax
- Is the university exempt from California Sales tax?
No, the university is not exempt from California Sales Tax.
- Why does the campus have a different sales tax rate than surrounding cities?
The core campus is not within the Davis city limits and therefore isn’t subject to local district taxes. The same is true for locations that are in outlying unincorporated areas of the county such as Primate Center.
- What is the difference between sales and use tax? Which is the university subject to?
- California sales tax is imposed on retail sellers based on selling tangible personal property within California. Use Tax is imposed on purchasers for the use, storage or consumption of tangible personal property within California. Each piece of tangible property is only taxed once. Typically when the university purchases tangible personal property the retailer will collect sales tax. However, when the university purchases an item and the seller does not charge sales tax, or charges a lesser rate than applicable, the university is responsible for self assessing and paying the tax due as Use Tax.
- If a purchase is delivered on the core campus but the purchasing department is located within the City of Davis, which is the correct sales tax rate?
- Sales (use) tax is applied based upon the first taxable use of the goods purchased. If an item will be used at a location within the City of Davis but is delivered on core campus, the City of Davis sales tax rate is applied. If the vendor applies the wrong tax rate, the purchasing department should contact the vendor and have the vendor correct the invoice. There is a TR&C PowerPoint available for viewing.
- When does a vendor require a resale certificate?
- A sale of tangible personal property made in California for resale is not taxable. If UC Davis purchases an item for resale, a resale certificate should be issued to the vendor. All resale certificates are issued by Tax Services. When a department resells the item, it must then collect sales tax. If UC Davis makes a sale to a re-seller, a timely, valid resale certificate should be obtained from the purchaser. For guidelines on what information the resale certificate should include, when it is considered timely and how to verify the seller’s permit number on the certificate, see Publication 103 - Sales for Resale on the BOE website.
9. Vendor Payment Reporting & Withholding
- When is a 1099-MISC form issued?
The university is required to issue annual 1099-MISC to payees receiving $600 or more for services rendered or non-employee awards / compensation. Typically, 1099s are not issued to corporations or nonprofit entities. However, the IRS requires the university to report the following payments to corporations:
> Medical and health care payments
> Attorney fees and legal services
- Why does the university report independent contractor payments to the EDD?
- California State Senate Bill 542 became effective January 1, 2001 and requires the university to report twice a month the following information to the Employment Development Department (EDD) on independent contractors.
> First name, middle initial, and last name
> Taxpayer Identification Number
> Date payments
> Amount of payments
- When is the university required to withhold California State income taxes? Is there a mechanism to avoid California withholding?
- When the university pays a vendor who is not registered with the California Secretary of State for work performed within California, the university must withhold seven percent of all payments that exceed $1,500 in a calendar year.
If a vendor is not registered with the Secretary of State, they can apply to the franchise tax board for reduced withholding (form 589) or a waiver from withholding (form 590) before performing work for the university. If the FTB authorizes withholding other than seven percent, the applicable FTB form, 589 or 590, must be attached in KFS.
- How do I determine if the payee is registered with the California Secretary of State and not subject to the 7% withholding?
- The Franchise Tax Board (FTB) provides specific methods to determine if a company is registered:
> The university may rely on a completed FTB form 590, Withholding Exemption Certificate, stating the corporation has a permanent place of business in California.
> The university may rely on the businesses listed by the California Secretary of State. The company name listed on the Secretary of State website must match the invoice.
- The vendor just provided me the completed form 590/589 and we already paid them. Can we give them a refund of the withholding?
- No. The Franchise Tax Board (FTB) requires the university to withhold seven percent (of the gross California source payment) if the FTB approval for reduced withholding is not received before the nonresident is paid for their services.